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    Angioplasty Medical Surgery

    Treatment description

    What is Angioplasty?

    Angioplasty literally means plastic surgery of blood vessels (arteries and veins). The aim is to expand the vessels in which there has been a narrowing, usually due to plaque accumulating on to its walls. For this purpose catheters ended with a balloon are introduced in the narrowning and the balloon is inflated destroying the plaque. The result is improved blood circulation in organs supplied by the previously occluded vessel. It is worth mentioning that angioplasty is a procedure performed not only in the coronary arteries. It has a wide application in the cases of other lesions occurring in the peripheral vessels.

    Coronary angioplasty

    When talking about heart muscle surgery we mean coronary angioplasty (PTCA – Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty). In this case, surgery is on the coronary arteries, the ones that are responsible for the blood flow and proper nourishment of the heart. Coronary angioplasty is performed on patients who suffer from ischemic heart disease (coronary artery disease). They suffer from:

    • pain, tightness or heaviness, burning occurring in the chest, behind the breastbone, often provoked by exercise, stress management, but also the sudden change in temperature, for example, walking out of a warm room into the cold air,
    • pain may be of radiating to the jaw, arms, back or upper abdomen,
    • pain persists after stopping exercise or taking medication.

    Indications for angioplasty

    Patients qualified for angoplasty surgery have:

    • problems that arise despite optimal medical treatment or drug resistance,
    • stenosis which refers to one or two vessels,
    • graft stenosis occurs after surgery

    Angioplasty is the most effective way to treat SCI and prevent myocardial infarction, or heart attack. It is often a life-saving procedure. This should be done as soon as possible after the appearance of pain. The more time passes from the beginning of symptoms, the greater the likelihood of irreversible heart changes.

    Types of Angioplasty

    Angioplasty can be divided into:

    • angioplasty with stenting – it consists of placing a previously widened section of the vessel called a stent. A stent acts as a small spring which, after expansion maintains patency of the artery. Stents are made of steel, nitinol, cobalt-chrome, they can be coated with a antiproliferative substance (prevent restenosis), coal or gold and are self-expanding or expanded with a balloon,
    • standard balloon angioplasty (poba – plain old ballon angioplasty) – involves widening the vessel using a balloon without a stent.

    Currently, the most widely used type of is angioplasty with stent implantation.

    How is angioplasty performed?

    Angioplasty is performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. This procedure is invasive, however, it does not require general anesthesia, so the patient is awake all the time.

    In the first stage, the doctor needs access to the vessels to place the catheter. For this purpose he/she takes the punctures the artery the most common in the thigh.

    So the patient does not feel pain during the puncturing the artery, the doctor previously anesthetized tissue around the area in which it intends to puncture. The surgeon punctures the artery and introduces a catheter ended with a balloon. Under the control of the X-ray image of the catheter is guided along the aorta up to the tip.

    The next step is bringing the catheter to the place of stenosis and placing the tip of the balloon in it. Subsequently (usually several times) the balloon is filled with a mixture of saline and a contrast agent every 60 seconds. As a result, it the plaque is dented, and the stenosis is widened.

    When the balloon is filled, the patient may experience anginal symptoms caused by a temporary closure of the coronary artery and myocardial ischemia. The patient is injected with a contrast agent in order to assess the effectiveness of the treatment. When the doctor is sure the vessel is wide enough, he/she places the stent to maintain the proper flow. Then the catheter is withdrawn, but for a few hours you will have a so-called „shirt”. It allows a quick introduction of the catheter into the vessel if necessary.

    After surgery the patient must remain in a horizontal position (unless the vascular access was obtained from a non-femoral artery). The injection area needs a pressured dressing. Over the next few days, you should rest the punctured leg.

    What are the possible complications of surgery?

    Angioplasty, like any invasive procedure carries the risk of certain complications. Due to the time that has elapsed since surgery divide them into:

    Early complications of angioplasty:

    • damage to the vessel or its abrupt closure (as a result of delamination or shrinkage)
    • displacement of atherosclerotic plaque
    • separation of the plaque
    • myocardial infarction,
    • threatening arrhythmias,
    • local complications at the injection area
    • contrast nephropathy.

    Late complications of angioplasty:

    • Restenosis
    • Late stent thrombosis

    It should be noted that the incidence of complications in the case of surgery is small. The risk increases with age, poor general condition.

    Prices

    The prices stated are estimates taken based on todays exchange rates of GBP and EUR. Upon dental consultation an exact quote will be given taking into consideration all details of the Patients treatment. The destination where you choose to receive your treatment small Affect the overall cost of your treatment. Go to Destinations to check prices from Particular city.

    Treatment Time

    It can take from 30 minutes to a 3 hours. The duration depends on the difficulty of the case and the number of balloon catheters.

    After Treatment

    After surgery, a return to normal life takes about a week.

    Angioplasty plays a very important role in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. Thanks to this method doctors were able to significantly reduce the risk of stroke in patients with history of treatments for widening of the vessels. This type of surgery is also used in case of changes in the arteries of the extremities, renal arteries and others.

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